Nobel Prize 2018: Frances H. Arnold, George P. Smith, Sir Gregory Winter win in Chemistry
Stockholm: Frances H. Arnold, George P. Smith of the United States and Sir Gregory P. Winter of the United Kingdom were awarded the Nobel Prize 2018 in Chemistry on Wednesday for their work on evolutionary science.
The award was announced today by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences which honors researchers for advances in studying how molecules combine and interact. With this, it is the end of year’s scientific Nobel Prizes.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the #NobelPrize in Chemistry 2018 with one half to Frances H. Arnold and the other half jointly to George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter. pic.twitter.com/lLGivVLttB
— The Nobel Prize (@NobelPrize) October 3, 2018
Frances Arnold became the fifth woman to achieve the award after she discovered the first “directed evolution” of enzymes, which are proteins that catalyse chemical reactions. Enzymes produced through directed evolution are used to manufacture everything from biofuels to pharmaceuticals.
On the other hand, George Smith developed a method called phage display, where a bacteriophage – a virus that infects bacteria – can be used to evolve new proteins.
Likewise, Sir Gregory P. Winter used phage display to produce new pharmaceuticals. Phage display produces antibodies that can neutralise toxins, counteract autoimmune diseases and cure metastatic cancer.